अंग्रेज़ी

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  • Proverbs
     bird in hand is worth two in a bush
    It's better to keep what you have than to risk losing it by searching for something else.
    Honey catches more flies than vinegar
    You can obtain more cooperation from others by being nice.
    Liars need good memories
    People who do not tell the truth must be careful to remember what they say.
    Marry in haste, repent as leisure
    If you get married too quickly, you may spend your whole life regretting it.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    break off- 1) Stop, discontinue 2) Stop speaking    
    1) It was decided to break off diplomatic   relations with that country. 2) She broke off in the middle of a sentence.

    Tongue Twister
    Toy phone, Toy phone, Toy phone..
    (Repeat it loudly a few times to check   if you could say it fast, without a slip)

    Common Mistakes and 

    Confusing Words in English
    driving test / test drive
    A driving test (also known as a driving exam) is a procedure designed to test a person's ability to drive a motor vehicle.
    For example:- Ash passed his driving test.
    A test drive is when you drive an automobile to assess it, usually before buying it.
    For example:- It's good fun going on a test drive.
    Note - This sentence might help you to remember:-
    You need to have passed your driving test in order to take a test drive.
    except / expect
    Except is usually used as a preposition or conjunction, which means not including.
    For example: "I teach every day except Sundays."
    Expect is a verb, which we use when we think something is likely to happen, or someone is likely to do or be something in particular.
    For example: "No one expects the Spanish Inquisition."
    Note - except is usually a preposition, but in rare circumstances except can be used as a verb.
    For example: On a road sign: "No entry, buses excepted."

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  • Idiom
    crash course
    If you do a crash course, you do an intensive training course in order to obtain quick results.
    Before going to Tokyo, he did a crash course in Japanese.
    earn while you learn
    This expression refers to the possibility of earning a salary while in training.
    Become an apprentice and get paid while in training.  Earn while you learn!
    facts speak for themselves
    When the facts of a situation are co clear that no further explanation or extra details are necessary, the facts speak for themselves.
    No need to tell you that the situation is disastrous.  The facts speak for themselves.
    hold the field
    If something holds the field, it has not been replaced and remains valid or is still in use.
    The founder's management principles still hold the field today.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    get out of-  (+verb) Avoid doing something    
    Some husbands manage to get out of 
    kneel down- Go down on your knees    
    Most people kneel down to pray.

    Synonyms and Antonyms
    advice (noun)
    1. an opinion suggesting a wise or proper course of action we got some good advice from the vet about dealing with our dog's habit of chasing cars
    Synonyms- adjuration, admonishment, admonition, counsel, guidance, input
    Related Words- recommendation, suggestion; hint, pointer, tip; data, feedback, information; answer, solution; advisement, consideration, thought; alarm (also alarum), alert, caution, cautioning, expostulation, forewarning, remonstrance, remonstration, urging, warning; judgment (or judgement), observation, verdict; assistance, briefing, coaching, direction, instruction, mentoring, priming, prompting, teaching, tutoring; interference, kibitzing (also kibbitzing), meddling; moralizing, pontificating, preaching; exhortation, lecture, lesson, sermon, speech
    2. usually advices pl  a report of recent events or facts not previously known had advices that the city could hold out against an invasion force for at most a week
    Synonyms- news(s), 411 [slang], gen [chiefly British], info, information, intelligence, item, story, tidings, uncos [chiefly Scottish], word
    Related Words- announcement, bulletin, communication, correspondence, dispatch, message, reportage; dope, lowdown, scoop, tidbit (also titbit), tip; gossip, rumor, tale, tattle; feedback; disinformation, propaganda

    NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH
    Flash mob- A crowd that gathers in a pre-determined place, performs an action then disperses very quickly. The mob is not told exactly what to do until just before the event.
    It bag- High-priced designer handbag that is the bag "of the moment", or a "must-have" item

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  • Idiom
    (like the) back of one's hand
    If you know something like the back of your hand, you are very familiar with it and know it in detail.
    Of course I won't get lost.  I know London like the back of my hand!
    cat in hell's chance
    To say that there is not a cat in hell's chance of someone doing or achieving something means that there is no chance at all.
    Because of the blizzard, the pilot didn't have a cat in hell's chance of landing safely.
    put a damper on
    If someone or something puts a damper on a situation or event, they make it less successful or enjoyable.
    The party was going great until the neighbour's complaints put a damper on it.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    leaf through- Turn over pages quickly    
    She leafed through a magazine in the waiting room
    make off with- Steal and hurry away    
    He made off with my briefcase while I was checking the timetable.
    phase in/out- Introduce or discontinue something gradually    
    The government decided to phase in the new regulations.

    Common Mistakes and
     Confusing Words in English

    check (v) / control (v)
    To check means to examine. To make certain that something or someone is correct, safe or suitable by examining it or them quickly.
    For example: "You should always check your oil, water and tyres before taking your car on a long trip."
    To control means to order, limit, instruct or rule something, or someone's actions or behaviour.
    For example: "If you can't control your dog, put it on a lead!"
    What you shouldn't do is use the verb control in association with people and the work they do.
    For example: "I check my students' homework, but I can't control what they do!"
    Note- In Business English there is often a lot of confusion because of the term control in accounting.
    In most organizations the controller is the top managerial and financial accountant. The controller supervises the accounting department and assists management in interpreting and utilizing managerial accounting information.

    NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH
    black swan- An extremely rare and unexpected event of large magnitude and consequence, for example the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake or the 2008 financial crisis. 
    demitarian- A person who reduces by half their consumption of meat and animal products in order to reduce the environmental impact of their diet.

     

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  • Proverbs
    Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.    
    It is much better for you to go to bed early and to get up early in the morning;
    False friends are worse than open enemies.
    It's better to know who your real enemies are rather than trust someone who pretends to be a friend but is capable of stabbing you in the back.
    Grasp all, lose all.    
    Trying to obtain everything will often result in gaining nothing
    He who pays the piper calls the tune.    
    The person who provides the money for something should control how it is spent.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    butt in (on)- Interrupt impolitely.    
    It's rude to butt in on a conversation.
    fuss over- Pay excessive attention to
    She's always fussing over her grandson.

    Synonyms and Antonyms
    instruction (noun)
    1. a statement of what to do that must be obeyed by those concerned needed an administrative assistant who was good at following instructions
    Synonyms- behest, charge, commandment, decree, dictate, direction, directive, do, edict, imperative, injunction, command, order, word
    Related Words- demand, requirement; mandate; countermand, counterorder; law, precept, prescript, prescription, rule; ordinance, regulation, statute
    Near Antonyms- appeal, entreaty, petition, plea, urging; proposal, recommendation, suggestion
    2. the act or process of imparting knowledge or skills to another the view that the instruction of our nation's youth should be our highest priority
    Synonyms- education, schooling, teaching, training, tuition, tutelage, tutoring
    Related Words- didactics, pedagogics, pedagogy; higher education, higher learning; coaching, conditioning, cultivation, preparation, readying; development, direction, guidance, nurturance, nurturing; edification, enlightenment, improvement

    Tongue Twister
    Greek grapes, Greek grapes, Greek grapes.
    (Repeat it loudly a few times to check   if you could say it fast, without a slip)

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  • Proverbs
    Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.    
    It is much better for you to go to bed early and to get up early in the morning;
    False friends are worse than open enemies.
    It's better to know who your real enemies are rather than trust someone who pretends to be a friend but is capable of stabbing you in the back.
    Grasp all, lose all.    
    Trying to obtain everything will often result in gaining nothing
    He who pays the piper calls the tune.    
    The person who provides the money for something should control how it is spent.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    butt in (on)- Interrupt impolitely.    
    It's rude to butt in on a conversation.
    fuss over- Pay excessive attention to
    She's always fussing over her grandson.

    Synonyms and Antonyms
    instruction (noun)
    1. a statement of what to do that must be obeyed by those concerned needed an administrative assistant who was good at following instructions
    Synonyms- behest, charge, commandment, decree, dictate, direction, directive, do, edict, imperative, injunction, command, order, word
    Related Words- demand, requirement; mandate; countermand, counterorder; law, precept, prescript, prescription, rule; ordinance, regulation, statute
    Near Antonyms- appeal, entreaty, petition, plea, urging; proposal, recommendation, suggestion
    2. the act or process of imparting knowledge or skills to another the view that the instruction of our nation's youth should be our highest priority
    Synonyms- education, schooling, teaching, training, tuition, tutelage, tutoring
    Related Words- didactics, pedagogics, pedagogy; higher education, higher learning; coaching, conditioning, cultivation, preparation, readying; development, direction, guidance, nurturance, nurturing; edification, enlightenment, improvement

    Tongue Twister
    Greek grapes, Greek grapes, Greek grapes.
    (Repeat it loudly a few times to check   if you could say it fast, without a slip)

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  • Idiom
    doggie bag
    A bag provided by a restaurant so that you can take the leftover food home with you is called a doggie (or doggy) bag.
    The portions were so big that I decided to ask for a doggie bag.
    music to your ears
    To say that something is music to your ears means that the information you receive makes you feel very happy.
    The compliments I received were music to my ears.
    fall flat
    If a joke, a story or a form of entertainment falls flat, it does not amuse people, or fails to have the effect that was intended.
    He made a few attempts at humour during his speech but most of his jokes fell flat.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    take out- Invite someone to dinner, the theatre, cinema, etc.
    He took her out for a meal on her birthday.

    watch out- Be careful    
    Watch out! There's a car coming.

    Synonyms and Antonyms
    economical (adjective)
    careful in the management of money or resources 
    “we have to be economical in our use of the camp's limited supply of electricity”
    Synonyms- economical, economizing, provident, scrimping, sparing, thrifty
    Related Words- conserving, preserving, saving; forehanded, foresighted, foresightful, prudent; penny-wise; cheap, close, closefisted, mean, miserly, niggard, niggardly, parsimonious, penny-pinching, penurious, pinching, spare, stingy, stinting, tight, tightfisted
    Near Antonyms- improvident, shortsighted; bountiful, charitable, freehanded, generous, liberal, munificent, openhanded, unselfish, unsparing; extravagant, indulgent, lavish
    Antonyms- prodigal, profligate, spendthrift, squandering, thriftless, unthrifty, wasteful.

    NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH
    Content farm- A website that publishes large amounts of low-quality content, or content copied from elsewhere, in order to attract visitors and improve its search-engine rankings.
    Staycation- A vacation in which you stay at home and relax or visit places close to where you live.
    Trekkie- A fan of the TV science fiction series Star Trek. 

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  • Idiom
    foot in the grave
    A person who is either very old or very ill and close to death has one foot in the grave.
    It's no use talking to the owner.  The poor man has one foot in the grave.
    hard to swallow
    When something is difficult to accept or believe, it is hard to swallow.
    She invented an excuse that the teacher found hard to swallow.
    jury is still out
    To say that the jury is still out means that something is under consideration but no decision has been reached yet.
    The jury is still out as concerns the location of the new station.

    Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    give in-Accept defeat; surrender
    The authorities refused to give in to the demands of the population.
    join up- 1) Engage in, become a member of                 ( 2) Meet and unite with    
    1) John was in the army and Tom joined up as soon as he left school. 2) The two groups of tourists joined up at the hotel.
    make up- put on powder, lipstick, etc.    
    She spends ages making herself up/putting on make-up

    Common Mistakes and
    Confusing Words in English
    scared/ scary

    Scared is an adjective used to describe a person or maybe an animal that is frightened or worried.
    For example: "Hirantha was too scared to go white water kayaking in Sri Lanka."
    Scary (scarey) is an adjective used to describe something or someone that causes fear or terror.
    For example: "The horror movie was really scary."
    Note - Just remember "I'm scared of scary things, but I'm not scary." 

    NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH
    anonymouse/anonymice- People who wish to remain anonymous when they give information, essentially because they are afraid of scandal or retribution. 
    black swan- An extremely rare and unexpected event of large magnitude and consequence, for example the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake or the 2008 financial crisis. 
    carjacking- Blend of 'car' and 'hijacking'. When a car driver is forced to give up his vehicle or drive to a destination designated by the attac.

    droolworthy- Something so attractive or exciting that it makes you want to have it e.g. a droolworthy dress, a droolworthy cake...

    Tongue Twister
    A tricky frisky snake with sixty super scaly stripes.
    (Repeat it loudly a few times to check   if you could say it fast, without a slip)

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  • An idiom a day, keeps  confusion away 
    Bur under my saddle
    A bur under your saddle is something that annoys you or spurs you into action.('Burr' is an alternative spelling.)

    Canary in a coal mine
    (UK) A canary in a coal mine is an early warning of danger.

    Easier said than done
    If something is easier said than done, it is much more difficult than it sounds. It is often used when someone advises you to do something difficult and tries to make it sound easy.

    Give me five
    If someone says this, they want to hit your open hand against theirs as a way of congratulation or greeting.

    BUSINESS  ENGLISH  VOCABULARY
    Advertising
    Word        Meaning
    eye-catcher    Something that particularly             attracts one's attention.
    hype        Excessive or intensive public            ity;  exaggerated claims made         in advertising.
    jingle        Catchy tune, with a short sim            ple rhyme, used to promote a         product.    

    Synonyms and Antonyms
    advantage ( noun)
    1. the more favorable condition or position in a competition 
    “your experience volunteering at the hospital will put you at an advantage when you're applying for a job there”
    Synonyms- better, bulge, catbird seat, drop, edge, high ground, inside track, jump, pull, stead, upper hand, vantage, whip hand
    Near Antonyms- detriment, stranglehold; disparity, imbalance, inequality, unevenness; disability, failing, impairment, shortcoming; bar, catch, check, clog, crimp, embarrassment, hindrance, hitch, hurdle, impediment, interference, let, manacle, obstacle, obstruction, rub, shackle, stop, trammel; lurch, setback
    Antonyms- disadvantage, drawback, handicap, liability, minus, penalty, strike
    2. a thing that helps 
    “had all the advantages of being born into a wealthy and powerful family”
    Synonyms- advantage, aid, asset, benefit, boon
    Near Antonyms- constraint, inhibitor, liability, obstacle, obstruction, restraint, stranglehold
    Antonyms- disadvantage, drawback, encumbrance, hindrance, impediment, minus

    Tongue Twister
    I can think of six thin things, but I can think of six thick things too.
    (Repeat it loudly a few times to check   if you could say it fast, without a slip)

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  • Proverbs 
    Distance makes the heart grow fonder
    When you are separated from the person you love, your feelings are even stronger.
    Easier said than done
    What is suggested sounds easy, but it is more difficult to actually do it.
    Give someone enough rope and they will hang themselves
    Give someone enough time and freedom and they will get into trouble.
    March comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb
    The weather at the beginning of March is stormy  and at the end is mild.

    NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH
    Chick lit- Books, usually featuring female characters, written by women on contemporary themes and issues that appeal more to women than to men.
    Glass cliff- Refers to a situation where women are selected for positions when there is a strong likelihood of failure.

    Synonyms and Antonyms
    speed (noun)
    1. a high rate of movement or performance 
    “we dashed off the remaining paperwork with as much speed as possible so we could leave for the long weekend”
    Synonyms- celerity, fastness, fleetness, haste, hurry, quickness, rapidity, rapidness, speediness, swiftness, velocity
    Near Antonyms- languidness, languor, leisureliness, lethargy, torpidity, torpor; reluctance; deliberateness, deliberation; dilatoriness, lateness, pokiness, procrastination
    Antonyms- slowness, sluggishness
    2. a person or thing that is preferred over others
     “that kind of old-fashioned horror movie is just my speed”
    Synonyms- darling, fave, minion, pet, preference, speed
    Near Antonyms- abomination, anathema, bête noire, bugbear

    Tongue Twister
    How many boards Could the Mongols hoard If the Mongol hoards got bored ?
    Crisp crusts crackle and crunch.
    (Repeat it loudly a few times to check   if you could say it fast, without a slip)

     

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  • Idiom
    clean slate
    A clean slate is a record of your work or actions that does not show past mistakes and allows you to make a fresh start.
    He was able to rebuild his life with a clean slate.
    do more harm than good
    If the effect of an action is more damaging than helpful, it does more harm than good.
    Giving him money did more harm than good - he spent it on alcohol.
    first and foremost
    This expression is used to state what you consider to be more important than anything else.
    First and foremost I want to thank our hosts for their wonderful reception.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    brush up on- Improve, refresh one's knowledge of something.
    Mary decided to brush up on her Spanish before going to South-America.
    fire away- Ask questions in quick succession.    
    May we ask some questions? Sure, fire away!

    ENGLISH  VOCABULARY
    Politics and Political Discussions
    Word        Meaning
    electorate    All the people who can vote             in an election.
    gerrymandering Rearrange the voting dis            tricts in order to ensure more             votes for the party in power.
    incumbent    Person currently holding an             official position.

    Common Mistakes and 
    Confusing Words in English

    borrow/ lend
    To lend:
    Meaning: to hand out usually for a certain length of time.
    Banks lend money.
    Libraries lend books.
    For example: "My mother lent me some money, and I must pay her back soon."
    To borrow:
    Meaning: to take with permission usually for a certain length of time.
    You can borrow money from a bank to buy a house or a car.
    You can borrow books for up to 4 weeks from libraries in England.
    For example: "I borrowed some money off my mother, and I must pay her back soon."
    For a happy life - Never a borrower nor a lender be.

     

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  • Vidhi Doshi

    NEW DELHI — In India, many consider them “monsters.”
    Madhumita Pandey was only 22 when she first went to Tihar Jail in New Delhi to meet and interview convicted rapists in India. Over the past three years, she has interviewed 100 of them for her doctoral thesis at the criminology department of Anglia Ruskin University in the United Kingdom.
    It all started in 2013, first as a pilot project, months after the highly publicized gang rape and murder of a woman now known as “Nirbhaya” meaning “Fearless One.” The details of the case — a young, aspirational medical student who was attacked on the way home with a friend after watching the movie “Life of Pi” — struck a chord in India, where according to the National Crime Records Bureau, 34,651 women reported being raped in 2015, the most recent year on record.
    Nirbhaya brought thousands of Indians to the streets to protest the widespread culture of rape and violence against women in 2012. That year, gender specialists ranked India the worst place among G-20 countries to be a woman, worse even than Saudi Arabia where women have to live under the supervision of a male guardian.
    “Everyone was thinking the same thing,” said Pandey, who at the time was on the other side of the world, in England, finishing off her master’s. “Why do these men do what they do? We think of them as monsters, we think no human being could do something like that.”
    The protests forced a national conversation about rape, a topic which still carries huge stigma in India. Pandey, who grew up in New Delhi, and saw her city in a new light after the Nirbhaya case, said: “I thought, what prompts these men? What are the circumstances which produce men like this? I thought, ask the source.”
    Since then, she has spent weeks talking to rapists in Delhi’s Tihar Jail. Most of the men she met there were uneducated, only a handful had graduated high school. Many were third- or fourth-grade dropouts. “When I went to research, I was convinced these men are monsters. But when you talk to them, you realize these are not extraordinary men, they are really ordinary. What they’ve done because of upbringing and thought process.”
    In Indian households, even in more educated families, women are often bound to traditional roles, Pandey said. Many women won’t even use their husbands’ first names, she pointed out. “As an experiment, I phoned a few friends and asked: what does your mom call your dad? The answers I got were things like ‘are you listening,’ ‘listen,’ or ‘father of Ronak’ (the child’s name).’”
    “Men are learning to have false ideas about masculinity, and women are also learning to be submissive. It is happening in the same household, Pandey said. “Everyone’s out to make it look like there’s something inherently wrong with [rapists]. But they are a part of our own society. They are not aliens who’ve been brought in from another world.”
    Pandey said that hearing some of the rapists talk reminded her of commonly held beliefs that were often parroted even in her own household. “After you speak to [the rapists], it shocks you — these men have the power to make you feel sorry for them. As a woman that’s not how you expect to feel. I would almost forget that these men have been convicted of raping a woman. In my experience a lot of these men don’t realize that what they've done is rape.
    They don't understand what consent is.”
    “Then you ask yourself, is it just these men? Or is the vast majority of men?” she said.
    In India, social attitudes are highly conservative. Sex education is left out of most school curriculums; legislators feel such topics could “corrupt” youth and offend traditional values. “Parents won't even say the words like penis, vagina, rape or sex. If they can't get over that, how can they educate young boys?” Pandey asked.
    In the interviews, many men made excuses or gave justifications for their actions. Many denied rape happened at all. “There were only three or four who said we are repenting. Others had found a way to put their actions into some justification, neutralize, or blame action onto the victim.”
    One case in particular, participant 49, sent Pandey on an unexpected journey. He expressed remorse for raping a 5-year-old girl. “He said ‘yes I feel bad, I ruined her life.’ Now she is no longer a virgin, no one would marry her. Then he said, ‘I would accept her, I will marry her when I come out of jail.’”
    The response shocked Pandey so much that she felt compelled to find out about the victim. The man had revealed details of the girl’s whereabouts in the interview. When she found the girl's mother, she learned that the family had not even been told that their daughter’s rapist was in jail.
    Pandey hopes to publish her research in the coming months but said she faces hostility for her work. “They think, here comes another feminist. They assume a woman doing research like this will misrepresent men’s ideas. Where do you begin with someone like that?” she said. (washingtonpost.com)

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  • Proverbs
    Facts speak louder than words
    People show what they are really like by what they do, rather than by what they say.
    Half a loaf is better than none
    You should be grateful for something, even if it is not as much as you wanted.
    No wind, no waves
    Similar to 'no smoke without fire'.
    The first step is the hardest
    The most difficult part of an action is the beginning.
    Where there's life there's hope
    As long as a person is breathing, there is hope for recovery.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    Join up- 1) Engage in, become a member of 2) Meet and unite with    
    1) John was in the army and Tom joined up as soon as he left school.  2) The two groups of tourists joined up at the hotel.

    Synonyms and Antonyms
    word (noun)
    1. a pronounceable series of letters having a distinct meaning especially in a particular field 
    “my doctor used all of these medical words that I didn't understand”
    Synonyms- expression, term
    2. something that is said 
    “people who believe that the Bible is the literal word of God”
    Synonyms- statement, utterance
    3. a report of recent events or facts not previously known 
    “what's the latest word on the airplane crash?”
    Synonyms- advice(s), 411 [slang], gen [chiefly British], info, information, intelligence, item, story, tidings, uncos [chiefly Scottish], word
    4 . a statement of what to do that must be obeyed by those concerned 
    “the troops waited for their commanding officer to give the word”
    Synonyms- behest, charge, commandment, decree, dictate, direction, directive, do, edict, imperative, injunction, instruction, order, word
    5 . information or opinion that is widely disseminated without any authority or confirmation of accuracy 
    “don't tell anyone I told you about the shake-up, but that's the word right now”
    Synonyms- buzz, dish, gossip, hearsay, noise, report, scuttlebutt, talk, tattle, word

     

     

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  • By Devdutt Pattanaik

    In a guru’s ashram, I saw a young, beautiful girl who had completely stripped herself of her gender and sexuality: shaven hair, ash on her face, baggy clothes, bare feet, and complete subservience to her guru, who she referred to as ‘master’. The men were similarly shaven, and dressed. This was supposed to purify them, and help them commune with God via the guru.
    I remembered a Japanese story of a Buddhist nun, who was determined to attain nirvana (oblivion, in Sanskrit), the highest state of wisdom in Buddhism. She, therefore, burnt her face so that men would not bother her and she would be free to live a life of contemplation, meditation and purity without distraction. I also remembered the tale of the Nayanar matriarch, Karaikal Ammaiyar, who turned herself into a gaunt hag so that she could be one with the troop of ganas who follow Shiva, unchained to the delusions that come with a beautiful woman’s body.
    These stories glamorise the mutilation of the human body. In the Bible, Matthew 19:12, we learn, ‘For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother’s womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven’s sake. He that is able to receive it, let him receive it.’ Eunuchs here refer to castrated men, men without testicles, the gonads that produce the male hormone. Here, castration is seen as a technique to get closer to God. It is said that Origen, a Greek philosopher and ascetic of the Early Christian Church, castrated himself to get closer to God, though he was never made a saint as some of his ideas contradicted with some of the leading Church Fathers such as Paul and John.
    The idea of castrating oneself ritually for the sake of a divine being, or for divine communion, was known in ancient Mesopotamia. Roman writers speak of Galli, priests of Cybele, who castrated themselves publicly and offered the Mother Goddess their testicles as offering. A section of Indian transgenders, as part of accepting their feminine essence, castrate themselves in the name of the rooster-riding Bahucharji-mata, an act known as ‘nirvana’, and call themselves Mangal-mukhis, as they are considered free of sexual desire, hence auspicious and pure, capable of attracting good fortune in the lives of those whom they bless.
    So it comes as no surprise to learn of rumours that many male inmates of Dera Sacha Sauda were castrated on the orders of their guru, to ensure their purity. The irony is that the guru himself has been convicted of raping the female inmates, who were known as sadhvis, which means the simple ones, expected to be free of desire and ego, which is translated often in guru-doms as submitting to the guru’s will, even his sexual desire.
    This body mutilation as part of faith stems from the idea that the body, the vehicle of desire, is a fetter (as per Hindu, Buddhist and Jain ascetic traditions) or a sin (as per Christian ascetic traditions). While men’s hormone-producing testicles can be easily removed, it is tough to remove a woman’s hormone-producing ovaries. So, while gurus can strip men of their maleness, it is tougher to strip women of their femaleness. The best they can do is de-sex them: shave their heads, cover their bodies, but they still remain temptations to the un-castrated male, the guru especially. Which is why perhaps, in Buddhist manual for monks, more rules were made for the nuns than the monks, who were forbidden to castrate themselves, unlike many Hindu mendicants who simply crushed their genitals. (mid-day )
    The author writes and lectures on the relevance of mythology in modern times. Reach him at devdutt@devdutt.com

    Illustration/Devdutt Pattanaik

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  •  


  • Idiom
    good riddance!
    This expression is used to express relief at becoming free of an unpleasant or unwanted person or thing.
    Our horrible neighbour has moved house, and all I can say is 'good riddance'!

    hold on for dear life
    If you hold (or hang) on for dear life, you grip something firmly so as not to fall.
    Andy took his mother on the back of his motorbike where she held on for dear life!

    keep a low profile
    A person who keeps a low profile tries not to attract public attention.
    The inventor is a discreet man who keeps a low profile.

    let sleeping dogs lie
    If you tell someone to let sleeping dogs lie, you are asking them not to interfere with a situation because they could cause problems.
    Look, they've settled their differences.  It's time to let sleeping dogs lie.

    Tongue Twister
    The big bug bit the little beetle, but the little beetle bit the big bug back.
    (Repeat it loudly a few times to check   if you could say it fast, without a slip)

    Synonyms and Antonyms
    demonstration (noun)
    1. a mass meeting for the purpose of displaying or arousing support for a cause or person 
    “disgruntled students organized a demonstration to protest the change in university policy”
    Synonyms- demo [British], rally
    Related Words assembly, conference, congress, convention, convocation, council, gathering; march; protest, sit-down, sit-in, strike; counterdemonstration, counterprotest, counterrally
    2. an outward and often exaggerated indication of something abstract (as a feeling) for effect
    “staged a grand demonstration of her love for her husband with a candlelight-and-champagne Valentine's Day dinner”
    Synonyms- show, display, exhibition, flaunting
    Related Words- act, charade, facade (also façade), front, guise, pretense (or pretence), put-on, semblance, simulation; affectation, pose, sham; betrayal, disclosure

    Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    break out of-Escape from a place by force.
    Three prisoners broke out of jail.
    mark down-Reduce the price.    
    The coat was marked down by 40%  - 

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  •  


  • Idiom
    eat out of house and home
    This is a humorous way of saying that someone is eating large quantities of your food.
    I stock up with food when my teenage sons invite their friends over. They'd eat you out of house and home!
    fall into one's lap
    If something good falls into your lap, it happens to you without any effort on your part.
    She's not making much effort to find work.  Does she think a job is going to fall into her lap?

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    get out of (+noun)- Leave    
    How did he get out of the house?
    head off- Start to go somewhere.
    He headed off to the train station.

    Common Mistakes and 
    Confusing Words in English
    dose / doze
    Dose as a noun means a measured amount of something, especially medicine. As a verb it means to give someone a measured amount of medicine. 
    For example: Even with the medicine we dose him with, he seems to be getting worse instead of better.
    Doze is also a noun and a verb. The verb means to have a short sleep, especially during the day and "a doze" is a short sleep.
    For example: I often doze off after dinner.

    NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH
    Demitarian- A person who reduces by half their consumption of meat and animal products in order to reduce the environmental impact of their diet
    Flash mob- A crowd that gathers in a pre-determined place, performs an action then disperses very quickly. The mob is not told exactly what to do until just before the event.
    Hater- A social networking app which allows people to share their dislikes.

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  •  


  • Idiom
    help a lame dog
    If you help a lame dog over a stile, you help someone who is in difficulty or trouble.
    You can trust him - he's always ready to help a lame dog over a stile.
    keep in proportion
    If you react to a situation in a sensible way, without exaggerating the importance or seriousness of the facts, you keep things in proportion.
    Yes, we've got a problem, but let's try to keep things in proportion.
    left hanging in the air
    If a problem or issue is left hanging in the air (or in mid-air), no decision has been taken so it remains without a solution.
    No solution was proposed during the meeting so the question was left hanging in the air.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    put through- Connect two people (on the telephone)
    I'll put you through to Mr. Brown.
    veer away- from Avoid, stay away from
    I veer away from hypochondriacs if I can.

    Common Mistakes and
     Confusing Words in English
    don't have to / mustn't
    Don't have to = Do not have to
    We use don't have to to say that there is no obligation or necessity to do something.
    For example: "You don't have to do the exercises at the end of this page."
    Mustn't = must not
    We use mustn't to show that something is not allowed. When you use mustn't you are telling people not to do something. It has the same force as don't , as in: Don't do that!
    For example: "You mustn't drink if you're going to drive."

    NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH
    breadcrumbing- A navigation technique which helps users by displaying a list of links to the pages they have visited when exploring a website, for example: vocabulary  > business english vocabulary  > business letters.
    catfish- A person who sets up a false profile on a social networking site in order to deceive others or for fraudulent purposes.
    demitarian- A person who reduces by half their consumption of meat and animal products in order to reduce the environmental impact of their diet.

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  •  


  • Proverbs
    (A) cat has nine lives.    
    1) Cats can survive many accidents because
        they land on their feet without injury.
    2) Nine lives = 3 years to play, 3 years to
        stray, 3 years to stay.
    Dead men tell no lies.    
    A dead person cannot cause difficulties by revealing something that it would be preferable to conceal.
    (An) Englishman's  home is his castle.    
    An Englishman's home is a place where he feels safe, enjoys privacy and can do as he wishes
    (A) friend to all is a friend to none.    Someone who is a friend to everyone makes none of them feel special.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    close down- Stop operating (company, restaurant, cinema ...)
    When the factory closed down, the employees lost their jobs.

    Simile
     a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind, used to make a description more emphatic or vivid e.g. as brave as a lion  ‘as black as coal’, ‘as white as snow’.
    * As plain as the nose on your face 
    * As long as my arm 
    * As bright as a new pin 
    * As difficult as nailing jelly to a tree 

    Synonyms and Antonyms
    calm (adjective)
    1. free from storms or physical disturbance 
    “after a stormy night of high winds and driving rains, the day dawned on a calm sea”
    Synonyms- halcyon, hushed, lown [dialect], peaceful, placid, quiet, serene, still, stilly, tranquil, untroubled
    Near Antonyms- blizzardy (also blizzardly), blustery, squally, windy; extreme, foul, intemperate, nasty, severe
    Antonyms- agitated, angry, inclement, restless, rough, stormy, tempestuous, turbulent, unquiet, unsettled
    2. free from emotional or mental agitation
    “bystanders tried to help the injured person remain calm while they waited for the ambulance to arrive”
    Synonyms- collected, composed, cool, coolheaded, equal, level, limpid, peaceful, placid, possessed, recollected, sedate, self-composed, self-possessed, serene, smooth, together, tranquil, undisturbed, unperturbed, unruffled, unshaken, untroubled, unworried
    Near Antonyms- anxious, bothered, distressed, uneasy, unquiet, unsettled, worried; jittery, jumpy, nervous, restless, skittish, tense; high-strung, unstable, uptight
    Antonyms- agitated, discomposed, disturbed, flustered, perturbed, unglued, unhinged, unstrung, upset
    3. free from disturbing noise or uproar 
    “the room became much calmer once the rowdy tour group had left”
    Synonyms- arcadian, calm, hushed, peaceful, placid, restful, serene, still, stilly, tranquil
    Near Antonyms- crazy, tempestuous, wild; blaring, blasting, booming, earsplitting, piercing, roaring, thundering, thunderous
    Antonyms- boisterous, clamorous, clattery, deafening, loud, noisy, raucous, rip-roaring, roistering, romping, rowdy, tumultuous, unquiet, uproarious, woolly (also wooly)

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  •  


  • Idiom
    heart sinks
    If your heart sinks, you feel very unhappy and despondent.
    My heart sank when I saw the amount of work waiting for me.
    keep the lid on
    If you keep the lid on something, you hide it or control it to prevent people from finding out about it.
    The company tried to keep a lid on the negotiations but word got out to the press.
    leave well alone
    If you leave well alone, you decide not to interfere with or change something that is acceptable or adequate.
    It would be hard to get a better deal.  Let's just leave well alone.

    Tongue Twister
    How much pot, could a pot roast roast, if a pot roast could roast pot.
    I can think of six thin things, but I can think of six thick things too.
    (Repeat it loudly a few times to check   if you could say it fast, without a slip)

    Common Mistakes and
     Confusing Words in English
    discreet /  discrete
    Discreet is an adjective. 
    It means to be careful or modest, not to cause embarrassment or attract too much attention, especially by keeping something secret.
    For example: To work for the royal family you have to be very discreet.
    See it in action.
    Discrete is an adjective.
    It means something is distinct and separate or has a clear independent shape or form.
    For example: She painted using strong colours, discrete shapes, and rhythmic patterns.
    See it in action.
    AS REQUESTED BY CURLS DIVA
    For example: He alluded to the scandal without direclty mentioning it.
    To elude something is a verb. It can mean to escape or evade capture in a clever way, or you can use it to express a lack of understanding of something.
    For example: He eluded the police for 25 years.
    The rules of English spelling continually elude me.

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  •  


  • Proverbs 
    Distance makes the heart grow fonder
    When you are separated from the person you love, your feelings are even stronger.
    Easier said than done
    What is suggested sounds easy, but it is more difficult to actually do it.
    Give someone enough rope and they will hang themselves
    Give someone enough time and freedom and they will get into trouble.
    March comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb
    The weather at the beginning of March is stormy  and at the end is mild.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    run out of- Have no more of something    
    What a nuisance! I've run out of coffee.
    slip up- Make a mistake    
    You slipped up there! His name is Alex, not Alan!

    Common Mistakes and
     Confusing Words in English

    altogether/ all together
    All together(adv) means "together in a single group."

    For example: The waiter asked if we were all together.

    Altogether(adv) means "completely" or "in total ".

    For example: She wrote less and less often, and eventually she stopped altogether.

    Note- To be in the altogether is an old-fashioned term for being naked!                                                

    Tongue Twister
    Near an ear, a nearer ear, a nearly eerie ear.
    Scissors sizzle, thistles sizzle.
    (Repeat it loudly a few times to check   if you could say it fast, without a slip)

    NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH
    Meritocracy- The idea that merit and individual effort determine one's success rather than wealth or birth.
    Outernet- Traditional media (newspapers, magazines, radio, television) as opposed to the internet.

     

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  •  


  • Proverbs 
    Distance makes the heart grow fonder
    When you are separated from the person you love, your feelings are even stronger.
    Easier said than done
    What is suggested sounds easy, but it is more difficult to actually do it.
    Give someone enough rope and they will hang themselves
    Give someone enough time and freedom and they will get into trouble.
    March comes in like a lion and goes out like a lamb
    The weather at the beginning of March is stormy  and at the end is mild.

     Phrasal Verbs
    A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb. Below you will find a list of phrasal verbs in alphabetical order with their meaning and an example of use.
    run out of- Have no more of something    
    What a nuisance! I've run out of coffee.
    slip up- Make a mistake    
    You slipped up there! His name is Alex, not Alan!

    Common Mistakes and
     Confusing Words in English

    altogether/ all together
    All together(adv) means "together in a single group."

    For example: The waiter asked if we were all together.

    Altogether(adv) means "completely" or "in total ".

    For example: She wrote less and less often, and eventually she stopped altogether.

    Note- To be in the altogether is an old-fashioned term for being naked!         

    Tongue Twister
    The big bug bit the little beetle, but the little beetle bit the big bug back.
    Toy phone, Toy phone, Toy phone..
    (Repeat it loudly a few times to check   if you could say it fast, without a slip)               

    NEW WORDS IN ENGLISH
    Meritocracy- The idea that merit and individual effort determine one's success rather than wealth or birth.
    Outernet- Traditional media (newspapers, magazines, radio, television) as opposed to the internet.                        

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